Union representatives who are the subject of a union agreement may ask the RBA to organize a “deautorization choice” so that all employees in the collective agreement unit can vote on whether the clause remains in effect. Such a procedure does not exist under the RLA. Article 7, Section 1 of Japan`s Trade Union Act 1949 expressly authorizes the negotiation of trade union-shop provisions, provided that the union represents the majority of workers on the site. However, Article 28 of the Japanese Constitution protects freedom of association. The Japanese courts have fought against the two opposing legal values and have found that the right to organization is greater than the right to freedom of association.  However, the Tribunal has agreed on five conditions for the acceptance of trade union activity: The term “union shop” is not used in the United Kingdom, but it appears to be akin to a closed operation after entry. A trade union shop, also known as a post-entry shop, is a form of union security clause. The employer agrees either to recruit only union members or to require all new employees who are not yet unionized to become members within a specified time frame.  The use of trade union activities varies considerably from country to country, depending on the level of protection generally granted to trade unions. Britannica.com: Encyclopedia Articles on Trade Union Affairs The closed store is legal in all Canadian jurisdictions from 2006, and unions can (if they wish) negotiate forms of union security agreements that offer less than the union store.  Japanese labour law treats large employers differently from small employers, and business rules close to unions are much less often negotiated in small workplaces.
Chalmers cites, for example, 1979 data showing that 50% of jobs in Japan are unionized. However, while 73% of employers employing more than 1,000 employees had such agreements, only 59% of employers employing between 500 and 999 employees did so. Some agreements are ambiguously formulated, making them difficult to implement. Other regulations in the trade union shop are linked to various requirements that encourage the “industrial peace” union, such as mandatory conciliation for all disputes and the abandonment of the right to strike.  Article 17 of the Trade Union Act stipulates that the collective agreement is extended to all workers of the same type when 75% of this category of employer workers are already covered by the agreement.